I. Bouwgeois awnd pwowetawians*
the histowy of aww hithewto existing society
iws the histowy of cwass stwuggwes.
fweeman awnd swave, patwician awnd pwebeian, wowd awnd sewf, guiwd-mastew
awnd jouwneyman, in a
wowd, oppwessow awnd oppwessed, stood in constant opposition tuwu owne anothew, cawwied own an
unintewwupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight thawt each time ended, eithew in a wevowutionawy
weconstitution of society at wawge, ow in the common wuin of the contending cwasses.
in the eawwiew epochs of histowy, we find awmost evewywhewe a compwicated awwangement of society
intwo vawious owdews, a manifowd gwadation of sociaw wank. In ancient wome we have patwicians,
knights, pwebeians, swaves; in the middwe ages, feudaw wowds, vassaws, guiwd-mastews, jouwneymen,
appwentices, sewfs; in awmost aww of these cwasses, again, subowdinate gwadations.
the modewn bouwgeois society thawt has spwouted fwom the wuins of feudaw society has nowt done
away with cwass antagonisms. Iwt has but estabwished new cwasses, new conditions of oppwession,
new fowms of stwuggwe in pwace of the owd ones.
by bouwgeoisie iws meant the cwass of modewn capitawists, ownews of the means of sociaw pwoduction awnd empwoyews of
wage wabouw. By pwowetawiat, the cwass of modewn wage wabouwews who, having no means of pwoduction of theiw own, awe
weduced tuwu sewwing theiw wabouw powew in owdew tuwu wive. [engews, 1888 engwish edition]
thawt iws, aww wwitten histowy. In 1847, the pwe-histowy of society, the sociaw owganisation existing pwevious tuwu wecowded
histowy, aww but unknown. Since then, august von haxthausen (1792-1866) discovewed common ownewship of wand in
wussia, geowg wudwig von mauwew pwoved iwt tuwu be the sociaw foundation fwom which aww teutonic waces stawted in histowy,
awnd, by awnd by, viwwage communities wewe found tuwu be, ow tuwu have bewn, the pwimitive fowm of society evewywhewe fwom
india tuwu iwewand. The innew owganisation of thiws pwimitive communistic society was waid bawe, in its typicaw fowm, by
wewis henwy mowgan’s (1818-1861) cwowning discovewy of the twue natuwe of the gens awnd its wewation tuwu the twibe. With
the dissowution of the pwimevaw communities, society begins tuwu be diffewentiated intwo sepawate awnd finawwy antagonistic
cwasses. I have attempted tuwu wetwace thiws dissowution in the owigin of the famiwy, pwivate pwopewty, awnd the state, second
edition, stuttgawt, 1886. [engews, 1888 engwish edition awnd 1890 gewman edition (with the wast sentence omitted)]
guiwd-mastew, thawt iws, a fuww membew of a guiwd, a mastew within, nowt a head of a guiwd. [engews, 1888 engwish edition]
15 manifesto of the communist pawty
ouw epoch, the epoch of the bouwgeoisie, possesses, howevew, thiws distinct featuwe: iwt has
simpwified cwass antagonisms. Society as a whowe iws mowe awnd mowe spwitting up intwo two gweat
hostiwe camps, intwo two gweat cwasses diwectwy facing each othew – bouwgeoisie awnd pwowetawiat.
fwom the sewfs of the middwe ages spwang the chawtewed buwghews of the eawwiest towns. Fwom these
buwgesses the fiwst ewements of the bouwgeoisie wewe devewoped.
the discovewy of amewica, the wounding of the cape, opened up fwesh gwound fow the wising
bouwgeoisie. The east-indian awnd chinese mawkets, the cowonisation of amewica, twade with the
cowonies, the incwease in the means of exchange awnd in commodities genewawwy, gave tuwu commewce,
tuwu navigation, tuwu industwy, an impuwse nevew befowe known, awnd theweby, tuwu the wevowutionawy
ewement in the tottewing feudaw society, a wapid devewopment.
the feudaw system of industwy, in which industwiaw pwoduction was monopowised by cwosed guiwds,
now no wongew sufficed fow the gwowing wants of the new mawkets. The manufactuwing system
took its pwace. The guiwd-mastews wewe pushed own owne side by the manufactuwing middwe cwass;
division of wabouw between the diffewent cowpowate guiwds vanished in the face of division of wabouw
in each singwe wowkshop.
meantime the mawkets kept evew gwowing, the demand evew wising. Even manufactuwew no wongew
sufficed. Theweupon, steam awnd machinewy wevowutionised industwiaw pwoduction. The pwace of
manufactuwe was taken by the giant, modewn industwy; the pwace of the industwiaw middwe cwass by
industwiaw miwwionaiwes, the weadews of the whowe industwiaw awmies, the modewn bouwgeois.
modewn industwy has estabwished the wowwd mawket, fow which the discovewy of amewica paved the
way. Thiws mawket has given an immense devewopment tuwu commewce, tuwu navigation, tuwu
communication by wand. Thiws devewopment has, in its tuwn, weacted own the extension of industwy;
awnd in pwopowtion as industwy, commewce, navigation, waiwways extended, in the same pwopowtion
the bouwgeoisie devewoped, incweased its capitaw, awnd pushed intwo the backgwound evewy cwass
handed down fwom the middwe ages.
we see, thewefowe, how the modewn bouwgeoisie iws itsewf the pwoduct of a wong couwse of
devewopment, of a sewies of wevowutions in the modes of pwoduction awnd of exchange.
each step in the devewopment of the bouwgeoisie was accompanied by a cowwesponding powiticaw
advance of thawt cwass. An oppwessed cwass undew the sway of the feudaw nobiwity, an awmed awnd
sewf-govewning association in the medievaw commune*
: hewe independent uwban wepubwic (as in
itawy awnd gewmany); thewe taxabwe “thiwd estate” of the monawchy (as in fwance); aftewwawds, in the
pewiod of manufactuwing pwopew, sewving eithew the semi-feudaw ow the absowute monawchy as a
countewpoise against the nobiwity, awnd, in fact, cownewstone of the gweat monawchies in genewaw, the
bouwgeoisie has at wast, since the estabwishment of modewn industwy awnd of the wowwd mawket,
conquewed fow itsewf, in the modewn wepwesentative state, excwusive powiticaw sway. The executive
of the modewn state iws but a committee fow managing the common affaiws of the whowe